Part I
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Pulsatilla vulgaris Miller (Anemone pulsatilla L.)
Conservation status: VU
First record: Gerarde, 1597
Pulsatilla vulgaris Martyn,1727,60.
Anemone pulsatilla, Martyn,1763.
see TCE Wells, (1971) Biol. Flora Pulsatilla vulgaris. J. Ecol.
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INTRODUCTION
Pulsatilla probably occurred on many of the dry chalky heathlands which ran along either side of the Ickneild Way between Royston and Newmarket. Although only four sites were recorded in this area, at Thriplow and Ickleton heathland, Fleam Dyke and Devils Ditch, it was likely that there were others. Outliers were on the Gogmagog Hills near Cambridge on the west and the Hildersham–Linton – Bartlow area to the east. This area was of particular interest because according to Wells, it [Hildersham] was the only site in Britain where Pulsatilla grows (in small quantity) on a soil derived from glacial sands and gravels, mixed with flints and some small amount of chalky boulder clay,... (soil analysis) pH 5.2 ... and forms an important link with certain sites on the Continent where Pulsatilla vulgaris grows in acidophilous communities at soil pH values of 4.8–5.7. Wells (1971). Patches of such areas can also be found on the Gogmagog Hills and in the patterened ground of Newmarket Heath, and Thriplow Heath.
Of the roughly 12 localities there now remains only one – on the Devil's Ditch between the railway and the Running Gap, with sometimes outliers on the Heath, and west of the Burwell road. East of the Ickneild Way numbers of flowers on the Ditch have been steadily increasing since the war. The site at Hildersham survived from 1598 until 1991; on the Fleam Dyke it was recorded from 1838 to 1974; on the various sites on the Gogmagog Hills – from1660 until it was last seen on the Roman Road in 1952; On the Bartlow Hills (formerly partly in Essex) it was first described by Samuel Dale in 1730, and was according to Evans, still lingering there in the 1920s. The rest were lost by the end of the 19th century, mostly due to ploughing up of the heathlands at the time of enclosure.
Pulsatilla is perhaps the most widely cherished flower in the Cambridge flora. It was and is constantly looked for in the spring as a herald of the spring. From 1833 Pulsatilla on the Gogs was a place of almost annual pilgrimage by Babington and his friends. It can be seen in flower already in March, and it continues to flower until June, when both flowers and seed heads can often be seen together. Regarded by many, including Fitzgerald in the Omar Khayyam, and Henslow, as marking the site where Danish blood has been shed,we have no other wild flower with such a large and deep yet brillant purple flower. The silvery buds lie close to the ground and survive thereby late frosts and also burning, as on the Devil's Ditch, and appear to open quite suddenly and almost miraculously.

SITE SUMMARY: [3.5.2000]
Triplow Heath, 1842, N. Maynard.
On a broad balk halfway from Royston to Foulmire, Fordham, –1860.
Ickleton, GS Gibson & Boswell Syme, 1850.
Gogmagog Hills, Roman Road, Wandlebury, Chalk Pit, Little Trees Hill, Ray, 1660– Sell, 1952.
Hildersham Furze Hills 1597–Crompton, 1990.
Barrington Hill, near Linton. Relhan,1802;1820.
Westhoe Park, c.1835. [possibly introduced into the Park which also had Fritillaria]
Bartlow Hills, Dale, 1730–Hanbury,1884.
Fleam Dyke, 1838–Barlow, 1973.
Devil's Ditch, W of Burwell Road, Brown, 1836–Crompton, 1991.
Devil's Ditch, Newmarket, [east of A.11] Ray 1660–2000.
Devil's Ditch, Newmarket, [west of A.11] Ray 1660–2000.

44
THRIPLOW c.451.472 or 45–46–
Specimen: :'Gathered on Triplow Common near Ninewells by Nathan Maynard in 1842.' This plant formerly grew on the Heathy land near Ninewells, the spot indicated in the drawing,... and in 1842 my father gathered it there...but since that time it has been through breaking up the ancient turf eradicated so that not a vestige of it is left on the spot where it once abounded.... Maynard MS.13:345, CRO. [and Nat. in Cambs, 1959,27.]
On a broad balk halfway from Royston to Foulmire, T F [? printing error for H.F. = H Fordham], Bab.1860,2.
ICKLETON c.48–41–.
Ickleton nr. Saffron.Walden, GS Gibson, 5.1850, BM.
Parish of Ickleton, Boswell Syme, 5.1850, BM.
Chesterford, Essex, H Seebohm, 7.1850, BM.
Chalky hills parish of Ickleton, Rev HP Marsham, 1850, NWH. BM. Gen.Hb.WBCH.
On balks near Ickleton, GS Gibson, Bab.1860,2.
It grows on balks between Strethall and Ickleton, possibly within the boundary of the county [Essex]... Gibson,1862.
45
GOGS–WANDLEBURY 49–53–.
Pulsatilla On the left hand of the way over Gogmagog hills leading to Haverhill, so soon as you come to the top of the hill. Ray,1660,128.
Pulsatilla folio crassiore & major flore On Gogmagog–hills, on the left hand of the High–way, leading from Cambridge to Linton, just on the top of the Hill;... Ray,1670:255.
...At Cambridge I mett with Mr Andrews, he in coming over Gogmagog hills, found ...Pulsatilla etc. June 28 1722 Dale, Iter Cantab. [specimen in Hb Joseph Andrews, n.d., (BM) is from Andrews' garden]
Pulsatilla Anglica purpurea On Gogmagog Hills, on the left Hand of the High–way leading from Cambridge to Haveril, just on the top of the Hill;... Ray,1690,93; Ray,1696,145.
Pulsatilla folio crassiore & major flore. On Gogmagog Hills, on the left Hand of the High–way leading from Cambridge to Haveril, just on top of the Hill;... Ray,1724,260.
Pulsatilla. Gogmagog Hills. Ray,Index Loc.JM.ann.
May 22.... entred in to fielding and came to a Roman way which continued to Gogmagog Hills. Here... near the end of this Road are on the left two tumuli like those at Bartlow but not so high: on these are to be found Pulsatilla... May 24 I returned from Cambridge by the way I went, and more carefully observed the Roman–way I before mentioned, which I traced from the Hills to about a mile from Horseheth–Hall, and observed besides the two Tumuli before mentioned called at Cambridge The Loaves. theres divers others near it, what this way was our Antiquaries are silent... there runs a Roman High–way from the brow of the Hill Southward. May 22 and 24, 1729. Dale,Iter Cantab. [Dale's 'The Loaves' are two tumuli lying on the south side of the Roman Road; the NW one lay on the old line of the Road, on the parish boundary, the SE one is now on the golf course, 490.546 & 492.543.]
Pulsatilla folio crassiore, & majore flore. Pasque–flower. On Gogmagog–Hills,... plentifully. Martyn,1732,2:195.
[Pulsatilla vulgaris] Gogmagog hills. Th.M.ann.Meth.60.
Anemone pulsatilla. Gogmagog hills. Martyn,1763,Herbat.VII.
Go(gmagog) H(ills). ...Fisher ann. Berkenhout,153.
Pasque–flower. Hilly Pastures. Gogmagog Hills.... Relhan,1785.
Gogmagog Hills, SH, 1802, YRK:6; HJW Cat.; SH Cat.
Gogmagog hills... Crowe ann.Hudson,1778.237.
Gogmagog Hills.... Relhan,1802;1820.
Gogmagog Hills, Bot. Guide, 1805.
Gogmagogs Hills. Henslow ann. l:218–219.
Gogmagog Hills, near Cambridge. – Specimen from my daughter Jane, n.d., SH Cat.
Gogmagog Hills, Rev. GR Leathes, Hb Rickard, n.d., [?1790], IPS.
Gogmagog Hills, Dr Hooker, 4.1823, Hb Watson, K.
c.1831 'We had a very amusing expedition to Gamlingay heath....It was on this day that he [Darwin] was very successful in finding plants: particularly the Anemone pulsatilla and the Colchicum autumnalis which had never be except on the Gogmagogs and in Ld Osbornes park.' Letters and reminiscences sent to Francis Darwin, after CD's death, by JRodwell, DAR:112(series 2)120, CUL; [& in Browne, Darwin,131.] Rodwell seems to have made a curious error here, since neither Anemone Pulsatilla nor Colchicum were ever to be found at Gamlingay; but he was writing his reminiscences to Darwin's son Francis in the 1880s, almost 50 years since the event.
Gogmagog Hills. Hooker sp. [in Hb. Watson] NBG,1835,143.
Chalk Pit, Gogmagog Hills , Mus. Garn. W.L.P.G., 4.4.1825, SWN.
Gogmagog Hills, JS Henslow, 24.5.1826, CGE.
Gogmagog Hills, JS Henslow, 14.4.1827, CGE. BM.
Gog–Magog Hills. 11.5.1829. Henslow Exc.
Gogmagog Hills, JS Henslow, Hb Winch, 20.4.1830, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, JS Henslow, 28.4.1830, CGE.
Gogmagog Hills, fl. and seed, WA Leighton, 5.10.1832, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, CM Lemann, 2.5. [c.1833], CGE.
Gog Magog Hills, J Sharp, 22.5.1833, Huntly Hb. ABO.
Gogmagog Hills, Hb CC Babington, 6.1833, CGE. IPS.
Went with Power to the [Gogs] Hills. The Anemone pulsatilla in flower. 26.3.1834 Bab.Mem.20.
Gogmagogs, Hb JA Power, 5.5.1835, RTE.
Cambridge, CE Broome, 5.5.1835, K.
Gog–Magog, JS Henslow in MS Cat of CO Groom's Coll., (= Prince of Mantua & Montserrat), 5.5.1835, BON. NWH. LIV.
Gogmagog Hills. Hooker sp. [in Hb. Watson] NBG,1835,143.
Gogmagog Hills, TR Tuck, 25.4.1836, BM.
Gogmagog chalk pit, Lady Blake Hb. n.d., IPS.
Gogmagog Hills, Hb CC Babington, 5.1836, CGE.
Went with Henslow to the Gog Magog Hills, and gathered Anemone pulsatilla (just in flower), 22.4.1837, Bab.Mem.60.
Gogmagog Hills, CA Stevens; May 1837, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, H. Baber, May 1837, BM.
Went to the Gogmagog Hills with Henslow. We gathered Anemone pulsatilla... 3.5.1838 Bab.Mem.71.
Cambridgeshire, H Baber, Hb JA Power, 5.1838, RTE.
Gogmagog Hills, Rev. CA Stevens, June 1838, BM. NWH.
Went with Henslow to the hills, and got Anemone pulsatilla. 25.4.1839 Bab.Mem.39.
Gogmagog Hills, H Baber, 1839. ex Hb. F Tansom [?spelling.], YRK:6.
Gogmagog Hills, H Baber, Hb JA Power, 1839, RTE.
Gogmagog Hills, Mr H.Baber in Hb Mrs Atkins, 1839, BM.
Haslam and I walked to Cherry Hinton and over the 'Gogs,' returning by the Hills Road. Found a few of Anemone pulsatilla in flower,... 22.5.1841, Bab.Mem.99.
Gogmagog Hills, Hb CC Babington, 5.1846, CGE.
Gogmagog Hills, JT Boswell–Syme, April 1847, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, W. Borrer, 1847, NWH.
Gogmagog Hills, J Lee, ex Hb. AK Montrose, 1848, BON.
Gogmagog Hills, Fenton JA Hort, April 1850, BM.
Gogmagog Hills. [insert double underline] Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Gogmagog Hills, Hb SH Bickham, 1852, CGE.
On Gogmagog Hills, on a chalky soil, RA Julian, May 1853, BM.
Overton, Hiley, and I went to the Gogs. We saw Anemone pulsatilla in full flower, but nothing besides it. The season had been remarkably dry. 7.4.1854, Bab.Mem.172.
Gogmagog Hills, G H[enslow?], 1858, CGE.
Gogmagog Hills, FJ Bunbury, n.d., CGE.
Hiley and I went to the Gogs and saw one flower of Anemone pulsatilla just opening,...12.4.1858, Bab.Mem.188.
Gogmagog Hills, especially in the Park. [Leeds Park i.e. Wandlebury], Bab.1860,2.
Gogmagog Hills, FA Hanbury, May 1862, BM.
Walked with Hiley to Gogs and Wool Street, Anemone pulsatilla in flower, 3.5.1862, Bab. Mem. 199.
Syme came for the day. He and I went to the Gogs, and found Anemone pulsatilla,...9.5.1863. Bab.Mem.201.
Near Gogmagog Hills, Wm Robinson, May 1868, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, seed only, EM Holmes, 1875, BM.
Gogmagog Hills, AS Shrubbs, 1878, CGE. IPS.
Gogmagog Hills, n.c., 27.5.1878, CGE.
Gogmagog Hills, JW Carr, 1878, NWH.
Gogmagog Hills, n.d., (c.1880), HD. ann.
near Cambridge, J Cropper, 1885, LIV.
Cambridge, G Goode, 1890, LIV.
Wandlebury, TA Dymes, 12.4.1892, HTN.
Gogmagog Hills, especially in the Park and neighbourhood is one of its favourite resorts. [etc. etc.] Maynard MS.13:345, CRO.
Gogs, refound with Poten tab, n.c., 10.5.1895, CNHS.
Gogmagog Hills, JE Leaf, (Hb Watson), n.d.; K, [?JE Leefe, c.1900].
Near Cambridge, Thos Wilson, n.d., [c.1900], CGE [not found].
Gogmagog Hills, AJ Crosfield, 14.4.1906, BM.
Saw no signs of Pulsatilla, if it has flowered this year it has presumably been picked. 10.5.1914, AW Graveson, Diary, DOR.
'In some years it makes a sheet of purple in Gogmagog Park', Evans,1939,32.
No sign, PH Oswald ann. Evans, 4.1952.
CHALK PIT, GOGS [? same site as Little Trees Hill below]
Chalk Pit, Gogmagog Hills , Mus. Garn. W.L.P.G., 4.4.1825, SWN.
Chalk pit, Gogs, RJ Bunch, 5.1833, LTR.
Chalk Pit, Gogmagog Hills W.L.P.G., 1.5.1840, SWN.
Gogmagog chalk pit, Lady Blake Hb. n.d., IPS.
Old chalk pit on the Gogmagog Hills, FA Hanbury, May 1864, BM.
Took my first walk into the country with Mr Mudd [the Botanic Garden Curator]. To Gogmagogs, Woolstreet and Cherry Hinton. Saw the Anemone pulsatilla abundantly in flower in the old chalk pit. 13.4.1865, Bab.Mem.204.
LITTLE TREES HILL 486.528 or 488.528/9
Walked to Gogmagog Hills. Anemone pulsatilla in beauty, and great abundance in the pit at Little Trees Hill. 22.4.1861, Bab.Mem.196.
Little Trees Hill, Boswell Syme, May 1863, BM.
Went to the Gogs with Mr. TB Blow,... many of Anemone pulsatilla and Senecio campestris in the pit under Little Trees Hill. 31.5.1876, Bab.Mem.222.
Little Trees Hill, HS Redgrove, April 1923, BM.
ROMAN ROAD c.493.545
No lecture to–day, so walked with Hiley to Gogs and Woolstreet. Anemone pulsatilla in flower. 3.5.1862 Bab.Mem.199.
....it is now very uncommon on the Roman Road outside it. [outside Gogmagog Park], Evans,1939,32.
By the Roman Road, on the edge of the golf course, 1952; now ploughed up, PD Sell, 1956.
-------------------
?[Babraham Park, (the late Cyril West told me of this, I haven't been there myself) F. Rose in litt. 19.4.2000.]
?[Tumuli near Babraham Park? [Graveson's records are only for Hypoc mac & Phleu phl at this site.] AW Graveson, 1914.]
54
FURZE HILLS HILDERSHAM 555.484/3
Purple Passe–floure ... in English, Pasque floure, or Passe–floure... in Cambridge–shire where they grow, they are named Coventrie bels.... Those with purple flowers do growe very plentifully in the pasture or close belonging to the personage house of a small village sixe miles from Cambridge, called Hildersham: the Parsons name that lived at the impression hereof was master Fuller, a very kinde and loving man, and willing to shewe unto any man the said close, who desired the same. Gerarde, 1597,314=308, 309;1633 & 1636,385.
Purple passe–flower at Hildersham six miles from Cambridge. How,1650,100.
Purple Passe floure. Pulsatilla vulgaris Lob. Ger: Herba venti Trag: Anemone Limonia, & Samolus Plinj, Daleschamp: at Hildersham sixe miles from Cambridge. Pratt:147.
Purple Pasq–flour, G.385. P.341. At Hildersham six miles from Cambridge. Merrett,1667,99.
... and also about Hildersham, six miles from Cambridge. Ray,1670:255.
Pulsatilla Anglica purpurea ...; also about Hildersham, six miles from Cambridge; Ray,1690,93; Ray,1696,145.
Pulsatilla folio crassiore & major flore. ... also about Hildersham, six Miles from Cambridge; Ray,1724,260.
About Hildersham. JM.ann.; Hildersham [sic] JM.ann.
Hildersham Th.M.ann.Meth.–Index Loc.9.
Hildersham. Martyn,1763,Herbat.X.
Hild: Fisher ann. Berkenhout,153.
Hildershaw, [sic], Withering, ed.2, 1787,566; ed.3,1796,498.
Pasque–flower. Hilly Pastures... Hildersham. Relhan,1785;1802;1820.
... and at Hildersham. Spurgin & Clarke, Walden Fl. 1832. SWN.
Hildersham, WLP Garnons, 1840, SWN.
Hildersham. Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Near Hildersham, is a rich little spot, scarcely a hundred yards in extent, on which grow...A.p.. Gibson,1848,309.
Furze Hills, Hildersham. Bab.1860,2.
Hildersham, FA Hanbury, 5.1864, BM.
Furze Hills, T Henderson, 5.1874, BM.
Furze Hills near Linton, A Bennett, 17.5.1875, BM.
Furze Hills near Linton, flower, J Groves, 7.8.1875, BM. [?dates for flower & seed head below transposed].
Furze Hills near Linton, seed head, chalk hills, Hildersham, H Groves, 19.5.1876, BM.
Furze Hills, Rev.RH Goode, 21.4.1883, in Hb RH Goode, RH Goode (son) in litt. to Mr Harry Meyer, 27.4.1948.
1 flower of Pulsatilla. There is still a fair quantity of the plant. Furze Hill nearest Linton, 7.5.1914, AW Graveson, Diary, DOR.
Furze Hill, seed head, AJ Crosfield, 5.6.1924, CGE.
Furze Hill next Linton, 1928, W Porter,ann.
[Furze Hills] 'has almost been exterminated', Evans,1939,32.
Furze Hills, Hildersham, TG Tutin, [c.1930?].
Furze Hills, in fruit, with Filip vul, Helia cha, Thymus, AS Watt, 19.6.1941, Breckland Notebook VII, CUL.
No sign, 1952–1954. PH Oswald ann. Evans,
4 plants in thick F. rubra grassland on a small unploughed knoll, with Saxif gra 26.4.1966, & Soil Analysis: TCE Wells Card index; 'veg.thick, c.16–20cm high, with leaf litter at base. Curious mixture of plants, such as Rumex acetosella and Luzula campestris. Occurs on the crest of the west facing slope. 24.6.1966, TCE Wells, 1 metre quadrat sheet AP/13, NCM.
Only site in Britain where Pulsatilla grows (in small quantity) on a soil derived from glacial sands and gravels, mixed with flints and some small amount of chalky boulder clay,... (soil analysis) pH 5.2 ... and forms an important link with certain sites on the Continent where Pulsatilla vulgaris grows in acidophilous communities at soil pH values of 4.8–5.7. Site no.14, 1966. Soil analysis, p.280; assoc spp lists pp.281–3, TCE Wells, (1971).
2 clumps, 8 feet apart, 1 with 1 flower and 1 with c.8 flowers, Robin Sibson, c.1955, photos in CGE, f. RS 18.4.1975; [photos in CGE not found].
3rd Furze Hill, (eastern), 13 clumps in main colony with Thymus pul, and 1 clump on first hummock c.40m in from field edge, G Crompton Pop.map & 3 Col.prints, & JC Faulkner, 18.5.1976, NCC.
3 plants on brow of hill and associated species, Achil mil, Antho odo, Festu ovi, Filip vul, Helia cha, Myoso ram, Rumex acetosa, PJO Trist & KV Cramp, Sketch plan, 28.4.1980.
4 plants on brow of hill: 1) 4 fl. stems all eaten off, 2) 7 fl stems, 3) 14 fl stems incl. 5 eaten off, 4) 11 fl stems, and 1 plant at foot of hill, c.10 fl stems, Pop. map, G Crompton & J Heap, 22.4.1981, NCC.
5 plants on brow of hill over c.8m, no seedheads seen, with Genis tin & Phleum phl, much Arrhe ela nearby, G Crompton & J Heap, 22.6.1981.
Only 1 clump of ca 10 fls, mostly eaten by rabbits, nr path at top, and a good show of Saxifraga granulata, 'Sand Hill', Mr Alper, John Howkins (Farm manager), Jenny Heap, PJO Trist & G Crompton, 3.5.1985; Management Needs outlined in Report by J Heap, NCC.
East Hill, 555.484, PJO Trist, 22.5.1986, [R].
No sign of any flowers, 30 April & 14 May 1988, PJO Trist in litt 26.7.1988..
1 good clump of leaves on east side of ridge, G Crompton (3 CPs) with PJO Trist & MG Rutterford, 23 May 1989.
still 1 good clump of leaves only, G Crompton (4 col.prints), with PJO Trist, 1.5.1990.
BARRINGTON HILL near Linton [between Furze Hills and Linton] 56–48–
Barrington Hill, near Linton. Relhan,1802;1820.
Barrington Hill near Linton, Bot.Guide,1805.
Barrington Hill near Linton, (now ploughed up); Relhan. Bab.1860,2.
WESTHOE PARK near Linton 59–44–
Westhoe Park near Linton. Rev. WH Coleman. 'N.B.G.' Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Westhoe Park, near Linton; WH Coleman. Bab1860.
BARTLOW 585.482
['also on Bernak–Heath six miles from Stamford in great Plenty;' is also mentioned but not the Bartlow Hills. see below] Ray,1724,260.
Bartlow hills. Syn.260. JM.ann.
... I alighted at Bartlow Hills to see what plants grew on them when I found the ... Pulsatilla in flower... of all these I brought plants for my Garden. April 25 1730. Dale, Iter Cantab.
Pulsatilla folio crassiore, & majore flore. Pasque–flower.... and Bartlow–Hills, plentifully. Martyn,1732,2:195.
... gather'd ... at Bartlow Hills. Whether the Season would not permit the Pulsatilla to flow this year I cannot tell for I could find but one plant thereof in flower & none in seed thô the last year I found thousands in the same places. June 10 1734, Dale, Iter Cantab.
...it being early in the year, my collection could be but small Pulsatilla in seed not ripe,... May 7th 1735, Dale, Iter Cantab.
Bartlow Th.M.ann.Meth.–Index Loc.2.
Bartlow. Martyn,1763,Herbat.X.
Bartlow Fisher ann. Berkenhout,153.
Bartlow, Cambs, Withering, ed. 2, 1787,566 & ed 3, 1796,498.
[Bartlow Hill] I gather from Miss Parsons of Horseheath that the trees on these Hills were planted in 1770. Maynard MS.1:214(2), CRO.
Pasque–flower. Hilly Pastures... Bartlow. Relhan,1785;1802;1820.
[Bartlow Hills] Four hills remain, one has been opened and lowered, as represented in the Plate,... the tops of these barrows were planted with forest trees by the late Sir William Maynard, bart. Their grassy sides are abundantly decorated in the spring with the pasque flower (anemone pulsatilla),... printed letter to Mr Urban. Oct. 4.1822. p.305. and Plate. [?Gent.Mag.] Maynard MS. 1:214(25). [see also Relhan watercolour in CUL]
Provincially called Danes blood from growing on Barrows. Bartlow on the 4 barrows only (which are not in Cambs!) Henslow ann. l:218–219.
Bartlow, Cambs, JS Henslow, 8.4.1826, CGE.
Pulsatilla First record [in Essex] E Foster, 1828. Gibson,1862.
On Bartlow–hill,... Spurgin & Clarke, Walden Fl. 1832. SWN.
Photo of the larger Hills at Bartlow looking in a line from NE towards the SW. Note: Sketch of Bartlow Hill by GNM. 1885. [Hills on estate of Viscount Maynard. Hills 1,2,3, opened in 1832. 4 in 1815. 5 in 1840. 6 in 1835 & 7 in 1838.] Maynard MS, 1:213. CRO.
Bartlow Tumuli, 1840, Mr Clark, [?Josh] SWN.
Bartlow Hills, GS Gibson, Hb JS Salmon (3:19), 4.4.1844, NWH.
Bartlow Hills, nr Saffron Walden., GS Gibson, 4.1844, BM.
Bartlow Hills nr Saffron Walden, GS Gibson, 5.1849, BM.
Bartlow Hills, Hb, Ed Forster, 1849, BM.
Bartlow but on the 'Hills' only and so not in the county. Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Bartlow, HT Mennell, 5.1856, BM.
Abundant on the Bartlow Hill, G.[ibson]. Gibson,1862.
.'I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Caesar bled;'
'Apropos of Omar's Red Roses in Stanza XIX, I am reminded of an old English Supersitition, that our Anemone Pulsatilla, or purple 'Pasque Flower' (which grows plentifully about the Fleam Dyke, near Cambridge), grows only where Danish Blood has been spilt.' Omar Khayyam, Edward Fitzgerald, Footnote: Ed. 3, 1872, and Ed 4, 1879.
Bartlow Hills, J Clarke, 1864, SWN.
Bartlow Hills, 'in which locality it is called Dane's Blood' Miss Clarke, n.d., SWN.
Bartlow Hills, Variety double, n.c., n.d., SWN.
Bartlow Hills, etc., rare, n.c., n.d., SWN.
Bartlow Hills, & Hildersham, n.c., n.d., SWN.
Bartlow Hills, Cambs. colour painting in 5–vol. coll. by Miss CM Tyler, April, 1872, now owned by Rev. JT Tyler, ( f. SM Walters, 1980).
Bartlow hills, Cambs, now said to be extinct there, per Mr James Thomas, CA Wright, n.d., BM.
Specimen: 'Gathered on Bartlow Hills by me in 1883.' [GNM] Maynard MS.13:344, CRO.
Bartlow, FJ Hanbury, 19.4.1885, BM.
'it still lingers on the Bartlow Hills', Evans,1939,32.
55
FLEAM DYKE [543.548]
Fleam Dyke, CA Stevens, 1838, BM.
Walked with Rothery and Churchill Babington to Fulbourn and the Little Devil's Ditch,... Anemone pulsatilla was almost over.... 5.6.1840, Bab.Mem.88.
Walked to Fulbourn with J Statter...Went on to the Fleam Dyke, and found the Anemone pulsatilla in flower. 11.4.1848 Bab.Mem.143.
Newbould, Townsend, Lukis, Statter, and I went to Fulbourn and the Fleam Dyke, where the Anemone pulsatilla was in seed,.. 13.5.1848, Bab.Mem.143.
Fleam Dyke. Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Fleam Dyke. Bab.MS.Fl.1.5.
Bonney and I went by rail to Six Mile Bottom.... Anemone pulsatilla in fine flower, and abundant on the Fleam Dyke. 14.4.1862, Bab.Mem.199.
Fleam Dyke, FA Hanbury (ex Hb PB Mason), 5.1862, BON.
Fleam Dyke, FA Hanbury, 27.4.1863, BM.
Fleam Dyke, WA Hayne, 5.1867, BM; 9.5.1868, LIV.
Anemone pulsatilla was in flower on the Fleam Dyke. A very heavy fall of snow in the last week of March. 16.3.1872, Bab.Mem.234.
Fleam Dyke, near Fulbourne with Prof. and Mrs Babington, 16.3.1872, EB Cowell, IPS.
Dyke 2m. fr. Fulbourne Station. n.d., Cowell ann.
Fleam Dyke, (Venn) Bent, ann. 14.4.1873.
Fleam Dyke, 1878. Shrubbs ann.
Fleam Dyke, AS Shrubbs, 1879, CGE.
Fleam Dyke, Cowell Hb. 17.4.1880, IPS.
Fleam Dyke, 1881, HD. ann.
Fleam Dyke, TH Cory, 5.1881, BEL.
Fleam Dyke, JW C[arr], 5.1881, LIV.
Went to the Fleam Dyke, and found Anemone pulsatilla and Senecio campestris in flower in abundance. 13.5.1882, Bab.Mem.234.
Fleam Dyke, RI Lynch, 71/82, 20.6.1882, CUBG.
Fleam Dyke, RP Murray, 2.5.1883, BM.
Chalk bank at Fulbourn, H Goss, 14.4.1884, YRK:6; HJW Cat.
Fleam Dyke, n.c., 30.4.1888, CGE.
Fleam Dyke, plentiful. West,1898,249.
Fleam Dyke, AS Shrubbs, 1890, CGE.
Fleam Dyke, Cowell Hb. 4.1892, IPS.
Fleam Dyke, Rev. RH Goode, 20.4.1894, RH Goode (son) in litt. to Mr Harry Meyer, 27.4.1948.
Fleam Dyke, ES Gregory, 28.4.1894, BM.
Fulbourn, AW Hill, 5.1896, K.
Fleam Dyke, 1898, Shrubbs ann.
Fleam Dyke, plentiful, West,1898.
Fleam Dyke, n.c., 19.4.1902, CGE.
Fleam Dyke, A Malins Smith, 4.5.1907.
Fleam Dyke, HH Thomas, 5.1908, CGE.
Fleam Dyke, A Malins Smith, 4.6.1908.
Fleam Dyke, 1912, Shrubbs ann.
Fleam Dyke, EJ Allard, 17.4.1913, K.
Fleam Dyke, 2.4.1916, Mills ann.Hooker.
Fleam Dyke, one clump ±100 yds from Fulbourn end, 17.4.1929, Mills ann.Hooker.
Fleam Dyke, 'has almost been exterminated', Evans,1939,32.
Where old railway crosses [Fleam] Dyke, [544.545], W Hurrell, 1932.
Fleam Dyke, 'opposite' pumping station, [541.548/9],'1930s' f. BD Jones & WH Palmer.
Fleam Dyke, L22, JL Crosby, 1938.
Fleam Dyke, near Fulbourn, CD Pigott, 4.1947, CGE.
In very small quantity on the Fleam Dyke where it is crossed by the old railway cutting c.25 mile NW of the London–Newmarket road. JE Raven, n.d., Card index.
Fleam Dyke, 1 flower nr pumping station, MCF Proctor, 5.1950; more nr pumping station, MCF Proctor, 1951.
Fleam Dyke, 10 nr pumping station, D McClintock, 1952.
Fleam Dyke, PJ Bourne, 16.5.1953, ann. CTW.
Fleam Dyke, 16.5.1953, PH Oswald, Card index & WFS Diary.
2 flowers seen, 16.5.1953, PH Oswald ann. Evans.
Fleam Dyke, c.12 nr pumping station, DF Chamberlain, 3.1957.
Fleam Dyke, in short grassy area just SE of old railway, [544.545], KV Cramp, '1950s'.
Fleam Dyke, 1 fr. head beyond old railway near Pumping Station, visible on top of Dyke by side of track on pumping station side. (Hawthorn scrub on bank – quite narrow open strip), DJ Ockendon, 22.5.1965.
Fleam Dyke, looked for this but could not find it, although a good deal of rich Festuca–Koeleria open turf very suitable, SM Walters, 15.6.1965.
25 plants in a group, 11 in flower or bud, remainder vegetative, found towards the bottom of the SW facing bank, 9ft from scrub at the bottom of the bank... several Hawthorn seedlings and 1 Rubus plant grow within 1ft of the clump and a potential threat. NW of A.11, 16 paces NW of Tumulus, on opp. side, 25ft 8" from centre of top of bank, 543.548, [error for 546.544], TCE Wells Field Notebook; 1 metre recording quadrats, sheets AP/43,44; soil analysis; TCE Wells, 21.4.1967, NCM; sketch of site on Fleam Dyke, 21.4.1967, of 25 group and 2 group, with Astragalus danicus, O. viciifolia, H. comosa, Senec. integr. for FH Perring; Site no. 13, Wells, Biol. Fl. (1971).
2 plants in bud, and several veg. plants, 20.4.1973; 2 holes in turf, 20.5.1973, Lady (Nora) Barlow (in lit. to SM Walters, 4.2.1974).
56
District 5. Devils Ditch, Bab.1860,2. [probably Devil's Ditch west of Burwell Road 57–65–]
Swaffham, Cambridgeshire, Rev. J Brown, 4.1836, NWH.
Swaffham, Norfolk, [sic], WC Trevelyan, 5.1836, K.
Swaffham Prior, Boswell Syme & WW Newbould, coll. Dr Jermyn, 18.5.1837, BM.
DEVIL'S DYKE BETWEEN BURWELL ROAD AND OLD RAILWAY – [579.648 – 576.652 ]
Seen by Dr Perring, but not by me. This is the 2nd 10km square from Devil's Dyke. Seen by Miss E. Young 1965–70 period at 577.650, 'the odd plant only'. TCE Wells' Card index, NCM.
1 plant reported nr old railway,1971, but not found, JW Clarke.
4 fls on N side, 5 feet down from top of dyke – nearer road than railway – [c.578.649], f. Mary Graham, c.21.5.1978.
1 good flowering clump: 3 fully out, 1 with petals half eaten, 1 eaten to calyx, c.10 paces W. of ± centre of Brachypodium pinnatum patch, c.1m S of edge of top of dyke, just S. of remains of a little Crataegus. bush, [c.576.651], Pop. map & CP W to Himantoglossum + pylon, & W, focussing on P. vulgaris. (the bank, as far as the Hh site, had been mown and no scrub is visible on the photograph) G Crompton, 27.4.1979.
Only 1 plant, fl. over, in same site as 1979, 577.651, 3m from centre of track, and 50.7m from 0.0m Himantoglossum peg. Carlina vulgaris frequent in general area. Scrub has grown up since 1979 – see CP for change. The bank was very warm today; Pulsatilla vulgaris was barely in flower at the Running Gap site on 10 April, but here the petals were already faded. Plant had only 2 basal leaves. CP & Pop.map, G Crompton & L Farrell, 13.4.1981.
1 clump of 10+ fls, & c.20 paces to W, 1 clump of 1 stem fl., G Crompton & JW Clarke, 20.3.1982.
Hh site: (one clump between 40 – 50m pegs not found, G Crompton, 27.4. 1983).
1 leaf only, (rest eaten by slugs), between 60 – 70m pegs, G Crompton, 4.1984.
Summary of 3 sites NW of Burwell Rd. Pop.map, 1982–4, G Crompton.
one good clump between 60 – 70m pegs with 6 fls, incl. 4 eaten, G Crompton, & L Farrell, 9.5.1986.
Between Burwell Rd and railway, 1 clump in flower, Mike Gittos, March 1991, and about half way to railway, on SW side, in area of narrow belt of grass, about Easter, K Joysey, 1991; looked twice but not found, May–June, 1991, G Crompton.
DEVIL'S DYKE WEST OF OLD RAILWAY [5750.6525]
One plant in fruit on south west facing bank of Dyke, about 5 paces down from path and northwest of the Berberis clump, AC Leslie, 4.6.1982.
Not found, G Crompton, 1983 or 1984.
One good clump with 7 fls, c.15ft from Berberis vulgaris on SW facing slope, between gas main and pylon, G Crompton, 9.5.1986.
1 clump with 1 fl. stem 'eaten' or picked and 1 blind, 4.1 metres from NW end of Berberis, G Crompton (CPs looking NW & SE, & Pop.map.), & M Stanier, 10.5.1991.
66
DEVIL'S DITCH NEAR NEWMARKET [see also A.11–railway & A.11–Running Gap]
Newmarket On the bank of the great Ditch called Devils ditch. Ray,Index Loc.
Anemone pulsatilla... and devils ditch plent. Crowe ann.Hudson,1778.237.
Devil's Ditch, Mr Woodward, Withering ed.2 1787,566 & ed.3 1796,498.
Devils Ditch, near Newmarket, J Dalton, 1778, LIV.
Devils Ditch, Newmarket, Rev. James Dalton, 1790, YRK:6; HJW Cat.
This morning I accompanied Professor Henslow on an Entomological excursion towards the Devils Ditch... The sloping banks in some places were covered with Anemone Pulsatilla, and Carex Praecox, both in full blossom. This place is not assigned by Relhan as an habitat for the first of these two species. 27.4.1824, Jenyns,JNH.
Newmarket Heath on the devils ditch. Henslow ann. l:218–219.
The Devils Ditch From my daughter Jane. Hb Hailstone, (added 1830), YRK:6.
Devil's Ditch, L.J., 16.4.1822, BATHG.
Devil's Ditch, Hb. Winch, 8.5.1823, BM.
Devil's Ditch, J Downes, 8.4.1830, CGE.
Devils Ditch, Mrs Casborne, 19.4.1831, CGE.
Devil's Ditch, J.D., 30.4.1832, NTM.
Devil's Ditch, comm. Lady Blake (no spec.),5.1833, Hb JS Salmon, (3.19). NWH.
Newmarket. Mrs WG T[ownley], 1833, Folder 1, Gen.Hb.WBCH.
Walked to Devils Ditch where gathered specimens of Anemone pulsatilla & Orchis ustulata. May 9th 1835, Trevelyan, Diary.
Devils Ditch, Miss J. Hailstone, 1840. YRK.6. HJW Cat.
Devil's Ditch, T Boswell Syme, 21.5.1848, BM.
Devils Ditch. Bab.ann.Relhan,219.
Devils Ditch. Dist.1. Bab.MS.Fl.1.5.
Devil's Ditch, nr Dullingham (root), JT Boswell Syme, 8.1852, BM.
Devils Ditch, n.c., 25.5.1855, CGE.
Devils Ditch, Newmarket, Miss L.Waddington, May n.d., CGE.
We went to Newmarket by train, and found Anemone pulsatilla in flower on the Devil's Ditch. 18.4.1885, Bab.Mem.244.
District 5. Devil's Ditch, Bab.1860,2.
Devil's Ditch, W Jordan, 5.6.1876, 'He brought it to me and says that it grows abundantly', Babington, Bot. Loc. Rec. Club., BM.
Devil's Ditch, W Jordan, 5.6.1876, Hb Hind, IPS.
Devil's Ditch, heathy turf, Newmarket, Suff. L Frost, 8.4.1880, IPS.
Devil's Ditch, Rev. RH Goode, 6.6.1883, in Hb RH Goode, RH Goode (son) in litt. to Mr Harry Meyer, 27.4.1948.
We went to Newmarket by train, and found Anemone pulsatilla in flower on the Devil's Ditch. 18.4.1885, Bab.Mem.244.
Newmarket, HE Fox, 25. & 29.4.1886, BM. LIV.
Nr Newmarket, HE Fox, comm. FJ Hanbury, 29.4.1886, CGE.
Devil's Ditch, IH Burkill, 4.1891, CGE.
Devil's Ditch, nr Newmarket, D.B.B., 4.1896, NWH.
Devil's Ditch, FR Tennant, 6.1897, CGE.
Much more plentiful on that section of the Devil's Ditch included in this [1] district [i.e. NW of Newmarket Road] than on that in Dist. 5, [SE of Newmarket Road] where it occurs in limited quantity. West,1898,249.
Devil's Ditch, (fls), E Allard, 23.4.1904, K.
Devil's Ditch, n.c., 30.4.1904, CGE.
Devil's Ditch, (fr), A Hosking, 30.5.1904, K.
Near Newmarket, AJ Crosfield, 12.5.1906, BM.
Devil's Ditch, Mrs EM Walker, 1907, CGE.
Devil's Ditch, AJ Wilmott, 10.4.1907, BM.
Newmarket, RS Adamson, 2.5.1909, BM.
Devil's Ditch, flower and seed,Thos J Foggitt, 10.6.1909, BM.
Devil's Ditch, AW Graveson, 1.6.1912, HTN.
Devil's Ditch, flower & seedheads, AH Evans, 12.5.1913, BM.
Seedheads, Newmarket, Thos J Foggitt, 30.5.1913.
Newmarket, W.I.C., Hb LH Pegler, 5.–, BM.
Newmarket dry bank, Miss Welterman Hb F Robinson, 21.4.1915, BM. LIV.
Devils Dyke, Newmarket Heath, AJ Crosfield, 23.4.1919, CGE.
T Stephenson, 4.1921, (BEC Rep. 1922, 549), BM.
... and the Pasque flower etc found along with the cretaceophilous beetle, Silphia laevigata, Fab., Exc. to Devils Dyke, 14.5.1930, Proc.TSNS,1:xl..
Nr Newmarket, PM Hall, 22.5.1932, BM.
Newmarket, Cambs., G Searle comm. RB Ullman in Hb PM Hall, n.d., BM.
Devil's Dyke, n.c., 1938, CGE.
'On the Devil's Dyke it occurs scantily', Evans,1939,32.
'... extreme W of Suffolk', TSNS, 6:47.
'Many wild flowers that are beautiful and uncommon have been endangered by over–picking and uprooting. Here is an example. Pulsatilla vulgaris was fairly plentiful in one locality, just outside the County. When I visited the site in 1947 I went over the whole area and counted all the plants I could find. There were then 452, flowering and non–flowering. With the increase of motoring more week–end trippers and naturalists invade the area. Not only have practically all the flowers been regularly picked, but the roots have been pulled or dug up. Pulsatilla vulgaris is certain to die out in this locality.' FW Simpson, Proc.TSNS 13:359 (1967).
Devil's Dyke, Newmarket, Cambs, 29.4.1952. PH Oswald (WFS Diary).
Newmarket, Cambs (2 places), 2.5.1953, PH Oswald (WFS Diary).
Devil's Dyke, nr. Newmarket, Cambs, 9.6.1954, PH Oswald (WFS Diary).
Chalk grassland on the Devil's Dyke, CC Townsend, 2.5.1959, K.
88 over whole Dyke, BD Jones, 1973.
201 over whole Dyke, BD Jones, 1974.
57 over whole Dyke, BD Jones, 1975.
123 plants, including 27 left in burnt area towards Running Gap, and one isolated patch untouched by fire contained 21 plants with 100 fls, BD Jones, 1976.
105 over whole course, incl. 80 on SW bank + 3 on NE bank by July Course, BD Jones, 1977.
118 counted, incl. 17 SE of A.11, BD Jones, 1980.
DEVIL'S DITCH: A.11 – RAILWAY – DULLINGHAM ROAD [620.613 – 631.603]
Devil's Ditch, plenty of Pulsatilla, especially just before the Ry bridge, also Carex ericetorum in considerable quantity in various places, AW Graveson, 30.4.1914, Diary, DOR.
Plenty of Pulsatilla, photographed Pulsatilla, AW Graveson, 15.5.1914, Diary, DOR. HTN.
Abundant on the Devil's Dyke between the Newmarket – Cambridge & the Newmarket – Stetchworth roads; also the other side of the road. n.d., JE Raven Card index.
Plentiful on the Devil's Ditch, Newmarket, between the Cambridge–Newmarket Rd & the Railway, 6.6.1946. Hb. DEC/294. – includes one flower, but mostly in fruit at this date. Also 1m. south of the road: 26.5.1951. DE Coombe, Card index.
Nr Newmarket, CD Pigott, 4.1947, CGE.
Dullingham, abundant, CA Wright, 26.4.1890, BM.
Near Dullingham, W West Jr., 6.5.1893, CGE.
Plenty of Pulsatilla, especially just before the railway bridge, also Carex ericetorum in considerable quantity in various places. AW Graveson, 30.4.1914, Diary, DOR.
Nr Stetchworth, HW Pugsley, 2.5.1935, BM.
S of road still plentiful, J25, JL Crosby, 1937.
Near the Cambridge–Newmarket railway, EA George, 21.4.1940, CGE.
Abundant on SW slope at 628.605; Observer Post on Dyke, track from Stetchworth Road made into Rifle Range and Dyke at this point scraped to bare chalk for butts & Pulsatilla vulgaris at this point lost in 1942 or 1943, WH Palmer, (f.17.10.1980); [Obs. Post was at 626.608, Butts were at 628.605, up track from '4 Gates'].
Abundant on the Devil's Dyke between the Newmarket – Cambridge & the Newmarket – Stetchworth roads; also the other side of the road. n.d. JE Raven Card index.
Devil's Dyke, by railway. About 15 fl., 2.5.1953.,PH Oswald ann. Evans.
From Newmarket take Dullingham rd. till it crosses Devil's Dyke; then turn R along it & cross railway, 630.605; Anemone pulsatilla grows on sides of mound of Dyke just beyond railway (about 10 plants) and on L of path just before railway (2–3 plants) 631.603, PH Oswald, 16.5.1953.
Many plants seen in 1965–70 by Miss E Young at 629.605 approx. (by Tee on Golf Course) TCE Wells' Card index, NCM.
About 300 yds from the Cambridge – Newmarket Rd, along the Devil's Dyke, on the Stetchworth side of the road, i.e., to the east. 623.612. 73 flowers counted in an area 10yds x 5yds. Many of the plants have either been picked or are vegetative. The plants are growing on a SW facing bank c.35°, and are restricted in this place to the top half of the bank, and occur most abundantly near to the top of the bank. Turf is fairly dense Bromus 20 – 70cm high, with mixed hawthorn scrub, especially near the bottom of the slope, but with alarming amounts at the top. However Anemone appears to be thriving and it must do best in this situation. Patches of Brachypodium pinnatum are much in evidence here, and pose a further threat. It is very noticeable that Anemone pulsatilla is only growing in the relatively short grass (12 – 20cm) and it is not in areas where Hawthorn and Brachypodium have encroached. TCE Wells, Field Notebook, 6.5.1966, NCM; Copies of 1m quadrat recording sheets AP/27, 28, and soil analysis, 6.5.1966, TCE Wells, NCM; c.250 plants present in at least 2 well–marked localities, 623.612, and possibly scattered in other areas. n.d.,TCE Wells, Card index, NCM.
10 and 47 plants per sq.m., fifth century A.D. earthwork, Site No.12, 623.612, 1966, Wells, Biol. Fl. (1971) p.285.
Illustration of one plant with 3 flowers growing in ungrazed Bromus erectus grassland on the Devil's Dyke, May 1967. TCE Wells, Land–use changes affecting Pulsatilla vulgaris in England, Biol. Cons. 1:38. (1968).
3 late flowers near railway cutting at Dullingham end, SM Walters, 15.6.1968.
Silver Jubilee School, [SJS], Bury St Edmunds, annual excursion in mid–May: between Golf Course and pines near A.11:
30 – 40, 1969, SJS.
30 – 40, 1970, SJS.
11, 1971, SJS.
70+ (about 78), 1972, SJS.
51, BD Jones, c.2.5.1973 (between Dullingham Road and A.45).
43 seen by P Chapman c.15.4.1973.
30, 1974, BD Jones.
Nil, 1975, BD Jones; small groups of flowering plants, but none found on site near pines where 30 were counted in 1974, Cttee Walk, 1975.
Flowers counted by the Heath School children: [HSC]
47 in 1975, HSC.
one plant still in full bloom 6 June, 1975, between A.11 and pines.
75 in 1976, HSC.
2 in 1977, HSC; by railway very backward, only 9 fls in bud, Cttee Walk, 4.5.1977.
300+ in 1978, HSC.
218 in 1979, HSC.
107 in 1980, HSC; 118 counted, incl. 17 SE of A.11, BD Jones.
234 in 1981, HSC; (29 plants counted by BD Jones nr railway; v. poor between there and pines).
1 seed head among pines, and 1 veg. plant on edge of path between pines and 7th tee, G Crompton, Cttee Walk, 24.6.1981.
110 plants (= clumps), between railway and golf course, more than double ever counted here, f. BD Jones, 1.5.1984.
Frequent groups from west of pines to railway and 117 fls from A.11 to 15th tee, & scattered on both sides from 15th tee to railway, 18 CPs and sketch plan of colonies on both sides of Ditch, G Crompton, 15 & 16.5.1984, NCC.
211 plants counted near railway, mostly on SW facing slope, last spring, about twice highest previous number, f. BD Jones, 7.10.1987.
Some plants rather taller than those on Therfield Heath, which is the type locality, but show the characteristic fine segments of the leaves, nr railway, 630.605, PD Sell & JG Murrell, 18.5.1988.
257 flowers or seed heads seen, between A.11 & railway, – a repeat of G Crompton's survey of 1984, Pop.map, K Tucker & U3A Group, 23.4.1990.
152 fruiting heads, by S end of golf course, SW slope mostly near tee No 7, CJ Cadbury, 29.5.1993.
110 on SW side, 33 on NE side, between A.1304 & railway, JCA Rathmell, 19.5.1994.
308 near railway, 629.606, JCA Rathmell, 2.5.1997, [R].
DEVIL'S DITCH BETWEEN A.11 AND RUNNING GAP
12 counted by BD Jones, 2.5.1973, and 27 on 11.6.1973, (BDJ counted plants 'which could produce blooms').
One clump near racecourse, 618.615, JCA Rathmell, 2.5.1997, [R].
DEVIL'S DITCH SE OF RUNNING GAP [60–62–]
Between Running Gap and Commentators' boxes, [i.e. Himantoglossum area]:
Leave Newmarket by London rd., turn R. along the Devil's Dyke, beyond gap (cleared for aerodrome during war) there is a hawthorn bush on R. slope of dyke. Soon after this there are scattered briar bushes on the dyke. Among these and nr. there are about 30 plants, 604.627, PH Oswald, 29.4.1952.
Nr. race course gap. About 125 flowers, 4.1952, PH Oswald ann. Evans.
Not many flowers in 1953, 1953, PH Oswald ann. Evans.
Devil's Dyke, 607.624, PD Sell 3.6.1954, CGE.
Over 80 plants, many in full flower, in area burnt 4.1976, by Lizard sites, incl. 2 of reddish purple, Cttee Walk, 4.5.1977; in fruit, & 3 in bud, but numerous heads bitten off (above bracts). Astra dan in fl. & Helia cha ab., G Crompton & V Gordon, 6.6.1977.
CP 2m W of large rose bush at top of Dyke, 1 clump of 10 buds with 1 in bloom, 1 clump singed. Buds seem 'fire resistant' judging from number of appressed buds visible at ground level, or perhaps grown since fire; soil very moist. Also noticeable were bright green leaves of Daucus and Pimpinella, c.603.628, G Crompton, 19.4.1978, NCC.
43 fls on NE facing slope between rose bush on SW side and large willow at foot of NE bank, in 2 groups, sketch plan, D Donald, 17.5.1978.
c.700 fls (129 fls directly around rose bush on SW side, 81 NE of bush 379 + 1, SE of bush: 43 directly opposite rose on NE facing bank), 603.628 – 605.626, (after fire on 5 April,1978), Pop. map & 3 CPs, G Crompton, 19.5.1978, NCC.
Very good, in full flower, some of very deep colour on N side (which has extended in area E – W –N), Dyke burnt on S side in April 1979, G Crompton & D Donald, 16.5.1979.
Himantoglossum Site 1 area, burnt 25.2.1982; only 3 in bud nr Site 1, CP, G Crompton, 1.4.1982.
Pulsatilla vulgaris in seed near peg M (NE side – Himantoglossum Site 1), and lots of seed heads seen in this area on NE side, i.e. opp. main 'Rose' site, G Crompton, 11.6.1982.
Total of 644 flowering stems seen in bud, flower or seed: 167 seed heads on SW slope, and 46 seed heads on NE slope, between pegs M – N, and 105 seed heads on SW slope between pegs O – P, and 265 seed heads, SW slope between pegs L – M. M Hicks, Survey, 7.1983.
Very good population on W. bank in Himantoglossum region [colony in 52/66], which had been burnt recently, from c.5m from top down bank, and along c.150m, MJ O'Leary, 6.1988.
All flowering plants were in area that had been burnt (?early 1990), grass in unburnt areas (? Bromus erectus), very thick with only the longest plants, e.g. Centaurea nigra and C. scabiosa showing: 25 plants on NE side and 93 plants on SW side counted, sketch plan of area between Running Gap and Himantoglossum Site 2 hawthorn, E Norman, and 90 fl. on SW bank, between Site 2 and rose bush, 33 fl. around rose bush and 32 fl. on NE bank opp. rose bush, (total c.155 flowers or seed heads) counted by K Tucker, joint survey, 12.5.1991.
DEVIL'S DITCH BETWEEN COMMENTATORS' BOX (NEAR BOMBER GAP) AND HIMANTOGLOSSUM SITE 2. [c.605.625]
48 fls on SW facing slope, 10m from northwesternmost dip from C/Box, CP & Pop. map, G Crompton, 19.5.1978.
Patch on SW side between Commentators' Boxes and Himantoglossum (Site 2), Pop. map, G Crompton, 12.6.1982.
56 + 6 seed heads, (Total 62 seed heads), SW slope between pegs A10 (70m from peg C) – A11, M Hicks, Survey, 7.1983.
3 flowering stems in good veg. patch, about 94 paces from Site 2 hawthorn and 115 from Commentators' Box, G Crompton, 29.5.1991.
DEVIL'S DITCH BETWEEN A.11 AND CAMBRIDGE GAP [614.618 – 617.617]:
10 – 15 plants almost at the bottom of the SW facing bank on stretch where on the opposite ditch bank there is Prunus avium, i.e. between P. avium and Cambridge Gap, AC Leslie & JM Spencer Smith, 25.4.1981; 49 plants in 3.5m x 3.0m, near bottom of ditch, 614.618, Pop. map & CPs, G Crompton, 11.5.1981, NCC. Not found, G Crompton, Ctte Walk, 29.5.1991.
Only 1 fl. & 1 bud seen, AC Leslie, Cttee Walk, 19.4.1982.
Still present; and new site to east, with 5 fls, ± opp. July Stands & 15m from fence across Ditch, c.615.617, G Crompton, Cttee Walk, 15.5.1984. Not found, G Crompton, Ctte Walk, 29.5.1991.
One small clump in seed beside NE side of path (opp. small birch bush) and one little clump about 2m down on SW side, c. 200 yds from A.11 entrance, 617.615, PJ Grubb Exc. and G Crompton, CPs, 26.5.2001.
NEWMARKET HEATH
Plentiful in high chalky pastures in several parts of England, especially about Newmarket heath; from whence our specimen was taken. Smith,Eng.Bot. (1790) 1:51.
Newmarket Heath, Dreyer ann. Smith,1800:580.
Newmarket Heath, Relhan,1802;1820.
Newmarket Heath, Bot. Guide; 1805. [=Relhan]
Newmarket Heath, Relhan,1820.
Newmarket Heath, Henslow ann. l:218–219.
Newmarket, Mrs WG T[ownley], 1833, Folder 1, Gen.Hb.WBCH.
Newmarket Heath, WH Hind, n.d., IPS; also in Hb Rickards(–1850) in CGE, Hind, Fl.Suff. 1889. [specimens not seen].
Newmarket Heath, Henslow & Skepper, Fl. Suff.1860.
Newmarket Heath, WC Barton, 18.4.1913, K, BM.
2 clumps of 6 and 2 fls on heath, 10–15 paces from foot of N side of Dyke opp. rose in main Pulsatilla vulgaris colony near Running Gap, Andrew Lack & Marion Barnet, Pop. map & CPs, 19.5.1978, G Crompton, NCC; none found, G Crompton & Duncan Donald, 16.5.1979.
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'I am enclosing the seed of Pulsatilla which reputedly was taken from the Devil's Dyke in 1978. It came to me via Terry Parr on Lynne's advice. Apparently Terry Parr's girl friend, who is the county's Bee Officer, obtained it from one of her clients who apparently 'had a conscience' about having picked it. More she won't say. Do what you like with it.' TCE Wells in litt. 15.9.1979.
Gave Margaret Nixon Pulsatilla vulgaris seed, 1980 f. L Farrell..
Mr Harding, July Cottages: (aged 75) worked on the Heath since he was 5 (Sat. mornings). Lived at July Cottages for 50 years. 1) Col. Gray (Jockey Club Agent) had a flock of Southdowns and 2 shepherds from Scotland. Walked the sheep over the heath and crossed the Ditch to Bunbury Farm – also farmed by the Jockey Club. Ditch was not grazed though they would graze while crossing it till the early 1950's. 2) Ditch burnt regularly since 1920's to prevent 'Ditch fires' on July race days (v. hot). Mr Harding dragged a sack soaked in paraffin along the ditch – with a helper walking along to beat out any fire going on to the Gallops. He only burnt the A11 – railway side once. He helped to build the Rifle Range and remembers the Pulsatilla patch there. Also remembers O. morio site (& FH Perring). 1. Has dug up 1 clump and now about to flower first time in his garden. 2. Collected one seed head and got the gardener in Jockey Club's greenhouse to germinate it and gave plants to friends. 3. Collected bags of seed from his nephew's garden in Bury (source prob. Hort.) and scattered seed on Ditch and given it to all and sundry. 4. Remains of seed in paper bag given to me today. Pulsatilla vulgaris before pines, v. good 2 years ago, poor, 3 or 4 only last year. Does not seem to be source of seed collected from Commentary Box end colony. c.1984, G Crompton.


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